These terms overweight and obesity can be described as the accumulation of excess or abnormal fat in the body that may impact the health state of an individual negatively.
In adults, the Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple parameter for weight and height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obese individuals weight in kilogram(kg) by the square of his/her height in meters(m^2). BMI = kg / m2.
World Health Organization(WHO) defines obesity and overweight as follows;
Obesity is a BMI greater than or equal to 30kg / m2 and,
Overweight as a BMI greater than or equal to 25kg / m2.
BMI is a way of measuring overweight and obesity for taking population based measurement, and is the same for every adult both male and female of all age. But, this should be taken as a rough guide because it may not be the same data in all individuals.
Age needs to be considered when defining overweight and obesity here.
For children under the age of 5;
Overweight is weight-for-height greater than 2 standard deviations and above, HWO child growth standards median; and
Obesity is weight-for-height greater than 3 standard deviations and above, the WHO child growth standards median.
A different case goes for children 5-19years of age, here overweight and obesity is defined as follows;
Overweight is BMI for age greater than 1 standard deviation and above the WHO growth reference median; and
Obesity is greater than 2 standard deviations and above the WHO growth reference median.
Facts On Overweight And Obesity
Around 2016; about 13% of the total world population was seen as obese, out of these figures, 11% where men while 15% where women. Around the same time about 41million children below 15years where obese, while 340 million children between age 5-19years where overweight. Obesity has for long been seen as an issue for high-income countries. Anyway, things are presently changing as there has as of late been an ascent in weight on both middle and low pay countries as well. For example, since 2000 there has been an increase in addition of weight related cases in Africa where the number has been heightening with an expected estimation of half in children. In Asia, about portion of children younger than age 5 where viewed as overweight or obese in information gathered in 2016. More death have been connected to obesity and overweight when compared with death from underweight related cases.
Causes Of Overweight & Obesity
The main cause of overweight and obesity is energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories spent. Worldwide, there has been; * an increased consumption of energy-dense food that are high in fat and sugar and * an increase in physical inactivity due to the increasing sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing models of transportation, and increasing urbanization.
Changes in dietary and physical activities(exercise) patterns are usually the result of environmental and social changes associated with development and lack of supportive policies in sectors like urban planning, agriculture, marketing, health, transport, food processing, environment, education and distribution.
Health Problems Associated With Overweight & Obesity
An increase in BMI level can lead to some noncommunicable diseases like;
* Diabetes(kidney & colon ),
* Cardiovascular disease(heart disease and stroke) these cause death,
* Musculoskeletal disorders(osteoarthritis),
* Cancer(breast, prostate, liver, kidney, colon, ovarian and so on).
The problem of the disease has additionally been found to increase with the expansion in the level of BMI.
A few in-capacities and unexpected losses have been connected to youth overweight where children develop to adulthood with the condition.
Obese kids additionally experience difficulty in breathing, hypertension and opposition in insulin, crack increase and mental impacts. Overweight, obesity and other non-transmittable ailment can be counteracted. A people group and condition, which is steady, are enter in the forming of people groups decisions. Individuals can settle on the best decision as far as eating more beneficial nourishment s and standard physical activities, which will come full circle to decrease and avoidance of obese and overweight related issue. Privately, someone can increase the intake of fat and sugary sustenance s and increase the intake of vegetables, organic products, nuts and grains. People ought to likewise participate in quality exercises.
The food processing industry can play a major role in promoting healthy diets by;
* Reducing the fat, sugar and salt content of processed food,
* Ensuring that healthy and nutritious choices are available and affordable to all consumers.
* Restricting marketing of food high in sugars, salt and fats, especially those food aimed at children and teenagers; and
* Ensuring the availability of healthy food choices and supporting regular physical activity practice in the workplace.